The Geological Museum, part of the National Laboratory of Energy and Geology, began to be organized around 1859, when the Geological Commission of the Kingdom settled in the 2nd. Floor of the former Convent of Jesus, based in specimens collected in the field work of the Commissions Geological and, later, the Geological Survey of Portugal, the Geological and Mining Institute and now at the Laboratory of Geology and Mines (LGM) part of the National Laboratory of Energy and Geology (LNEG)
The collection of these geological samples: fossils, rocks, minerals and archaeological objects, due in significant part to the field work coordinated by the institution's researchers, highlighting the pioneers of Geology Portuguese Carlos Ribeiro, Nery Delgado, Paul Choffat and others. These samples are, today, reference collections serving the scientific community and are constantly consulted by national and international researchers. The collections continue to be enriched by samples collected during the current geological mapping field work carried on by LGM
The Geological Museum is located, until today, in the birthplace of portuguese Geology and Archaeology research for over 150 years, which gives it a unique value in the historical context of the national museums.
The arrangement of collections, his furniture and interior design exhibition reflect, the XIX century type of museology, one of few that remain in Europe, which makes it be regarded by experts as a "Museum of Museums".